How To Identify Atrial Tachycardia

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If you or a loved one have been diagnosed with atrial tachycardia, it’s important to understand the condition and how to manage it effectively. In this comprehensive guide, we will dive into the details of atrial tachycardia, from understanding its mechanism and common symptoms to evaluating the heart’s electrical activity and differentiating it from other arrhythmias. We will also explore diagnostic tests and treatment options, including medications, non-pharmacological approaches, and lifestyle changes to help you manage atrial tachycardia effectively. Whether you’re newly diagnosed or seeking to better understand the condition, this guide will provide you with valuable insights and information.

Understanding Atrial Tachycardia

Atrial tachycardia is a type of abnormal heart rhythm that originates in the atria, the upper chambers of the heart. It is characterized by a faster-than-normal heart rate, typically greater than 100 beats per minute. Unlike normal sinus rhythm, where the heart rate is controlled by the sinoatrial (SA) node, atrial tachycardia occurs when abnormal electrical signals disrupt the regular rhythm of the heart. This can lead to a range of symptoms and potentially serious complications, making it important to understand how to identify atrial tachycardia.

Diagnosing Atrial Tachycardia

Identifying atrial tachycardia requires a comprehensive evaluation by a healthcare professional. The diagnosis is typically made through a combination of medical history, physical examination, and specialized tests. One commonly used tool is an electrocardiogram (ECG), which measures the electrical activity of the heart. During an ECG, electrodes are placed on the chest, arms, and legs to record the heart’s electrical signals and rhythm. This allows healthcare providers to distinguish atrial tachycardia from other arrhythmias and assess the heart’s overall electrical activity.

Recognizing Common Symptoms

While some people with atrial tachycardia may not experience any noticeable symptoms, others may present with specific signs. These symptoms can vary from person to person, but common manifestations include a rapid and irregular heartbeat, palpitations (a sensation of a pounding or fluttering heart), dizziness, shortness of breath, chest discomfort, and fatigue. It is important to note that similar symptoms can also be caused by other medical conditions, so it is crucial to seek medical evaluation for an accurate diagnosis.

doctor holding red stethoscope

Recognizing Common Symptoms Of Atrial Tachycardia

Atrial tachycardia is a type of heart arrhythmia that occurs when the electrical signals in the atria, the upper chambers of the heart, fire too rapidly. This can result in a fast and irregular heartbeat, and if left untreated, it can lead to more serious complications. Recognizing the common symptoms of atrial tachycardia is essential for early diagnosis and timely intervention.

One of the key symptoms of atrial tachycardia is a rapid heartbeat. Normally, the heart beats between 60 and 100 times per minute at rest. However, in atrial tachycardia, the heart rate can exceed 100 beats per minute, sometimes even reaching 250 beats per minute. This rapid heartbeat can cause palpitations, where individuals may feel their heart racing or pounding in their chest. It is important to pay attention to any sudden changes in heart rate or rhythm as they may indicate atrial tachycardia.

In addition to a fast heartbeat, individuals with atrial tachycardia may experience other symptoms such as dizziness or lightheadedness. This can occur due to inadequate blood flow to the brain caused by the irregular heart rhythm. Some individuals may even faint or experience near-fainting episodes. It is crucial to seek medical attention if you frequently feel dizzy or lightheaded, as it could be a sign of atrial tachycardia.

Chest discomfort or pain may also be a symptom of atrial tachycardia. The rapid and irregular heartbeat can put extra strain on the heart, leading to a sensation of pressure or tightness in the chest. This discomfort may be mistaken for a heart attack, so it is important to differentiate between the two. If you experience any unusual chest pain, it is best to consult a healthcare professional to determine the cause.

  • Rapid heartbeat

    Atrial tachycardia causes the heart to beat rapidly, with a heart rate exceeding 100 beats per minute.

  • Dizziness or lightheadedness

    Inadequate blood flow to the brain can result in feelings of dizziness or lightheadedness.

  • Chest discomfort or pain

    The irregular heartbeat may cause a sensation of pressure or tightness in the chest.

Symptoms Key Indications
Rapid heartbeat Heart rate exceeding 100 beats per minute
Dizziness or lightheadedness Feelings of dizziness or lightheadedness
Chest discomfort or pain Sensation of pressure or tightness in the chest

If you experience any of these symptoms, it is crucial to consult a healthcare professional for an accurate diagnosis. They will perform a thorough evaluation, including a physical examination and may order additional diagnostic tests to confirm the presence of atrial tachycardia. Early detection of atrial tachycardia can significantly improve outcomes and help prevent further complications.

Diagnostic Tests For Atrial Tachycardia

Atrial tachycardia is a type of abnormal heart rhythm that originates in the upper chambers of the heart, known as the atria. It is characterized by a rapid heart rate, usually greater than 100 beats per minute, which can cause symptoms such as palpitations, shortness of breath, and dizziness. If you are experiencing any of these symptoms, it is important to undergo diagnostic tests to determine the underlying cause of your tachycardia and to develop an appropriate treatment plan.

One of the main diagnostic tests used to identify atrial tachycardia is an electrocardiogram (ECG). This non-invasive test records the electrical activity of the heart and can detect any abnormalities in the heart rhythm. During an ECG, electrodes are placed on the skin of the chest, arms, and legs, which then transmit the electrical signals from the heart to a machine that produces a graph. Healthcare professionals can analyze this graph to determine the presence of atrial tachycardia and to classify its specific type.

In addition to ECG, other tests that may be performed to diagnose atrial tachycardia include Holter monitoring and event monitoring. Holter monitoring involves wearing a portable ECG device for a 24-hour period, which continuously records the heart’s electrical activity. This provides a more comprehensive analysis of the heart rhythm and can help identify any sporadic or intermittent episodes of atrial tachycardia. Event monitoring, on the other hand, involves wearing a smaller, portable ECG device for an extended period, typically several weeks or months. This allows for monitoring during specific events or symptoms, increasing the chances of capturing an episode of atrial tachycardia.

  • ECG: The main diagnostic tool for atrial tachycardia
  • Holter monitoring: Provides comprehensive analysis over a 24-hour period
  • Event monitoring: Allows for monitoring during specific events or symptoms

In some cases, additional tests may be necessary to further evaluate the heart’s electrical activity and the underlying cause of atrial tachycardia. These may include an echocardiogram, which uses sound waves to create images of the heart and assess its structure and function, or an electrophysiology study, which involves the insertion of catheters into the heart to evaluate its electrical pathways and induce arrhythmias for further analysis. These tests are usually performed in specialized cardiac facilities and can provide valuable information for treatment planning.

Diagnostic Tests for Atrial Tachycardia:
ECG
Holter Monitoring
Event Monitoring
Echocardiogram
Electrophysiology Study

macro shot of vegetable lot

Evaluating The Heart’s Electrical Activity

The heart’s electrical activity plays a crucial role in maintaining its normal rhythm and function. By evaluating the heart’s electrical activity, healthcare professionals can identify any abnormalities that may be present, including atrial tachycardia. Atrial tachycardia is a specific type of abnormal heart rhythm that originates in the upper chambers of the heart, known as the atria. It is characterized by a rapid, regular heartbeat that exceeds the normal range.

To evaluate the heart’s electrical activity and determine if atrial tachycardia is present, several diagnostic tests can be performed. One commonly used test is an electrocardiogram (ECG). This test records the electrical signals produced by the heart and provides a visual representation of the heart’s activity. During an ECG, electrodes are placed on the skin of the chest, arms, and legs, which detect the electrical currents generated by the heart.

Additionally, an electrophysiology study (EPS) may be conducted to further evaluate the heart’s electrical activity. This invasive procedure involves the insertion of thin, flexible wires called catheters into the blood vessels, which lead to the heart. These catheters are equipped with electrodes that can map the electrical signals within the heart and identify any areas of abnormal activity.

  • In some cases, a Holter monitor may be used to evaluate the heart’s electrical activity over an extended period. This portable device is worn by the patient and continuously records the heart’s electrical signals for 24 to 48 hours. It provides a more comprehensive assessment of the heart’s rhythm and can capture any arrhythmias, including atrial tachycardia, that may occur during normal daily activities.
Diagnostic Tests Description
Electrocardiogram (ECG) This non-invasive test records the electrical signals produced by the heart and provides a visual representation of the heart’s activity.
Electrophysiology Study (EPS) This invasive procedure involves the insertion of catheters into the blood vessels, which lead to the heart. It maps the electrical signals within the heart and identifies areas of abnormal activity.
Holter Monitor This portable device is worn by the patient and continuously records the heart’s electrical signals for an extended period, typically 24 to 48 hours.

By utilizing these diagnostic tests, healthcare professionals can accurately evaluate the heart’s electrical activity and identify the presence of atrial tachycardia. Early detection and diagnosis of atrial tachycardia are essential for effective management and treatment. If you are experiencing any symptoms or have concerns about your heart’s electrical activity, it is important to consult with a healthcare provider for proper evaluation and guidance.

Electrocardiogram (Ecg) Interpretation For Atrial Tachycardia

The electrocardiogram (ECG) is a crucial tool in the diagnosis and interpretation of atrial tachycardia. Atrial tachycardia is a type of arrhythmia characterized by a rapid heart rate originating from abnormal electrical signals in the atria of the heart. It is important to accurately interpret the ECG to identify the presence of atrial tachycardia and distinguish it from other arrhythmias.

When interpreting an ECG for atrial tachycardia, there are several key indicators to look for. One of the hallmark features of atrial tachycardia is an abnormal P wave morphology. The P wave represents the electrical activity of the atria, and in atrial tachycardia, the P waves may be abnormal in size, shape, or duration. These abnormal P waves often have a different appearance compared to normal sinus rhythm.

In addition to abnormal P waves, another key characteristic of atrial tachycardia on an ECG is the presence of a regular and narrow QRS complex. The QRS complex represents the electrical activity of the ventricles, and in atrial tachycardia, the ventricular response is usually regular and the QRS complexes are normal in duration. This differentiation from other arrhythmias, such as atrial fibrillation or atrial flutter, is important in accurately diagnosing atrial tachycardia.

  • Electrocardiogram (ECG) Interpretation: Key Points
    – Look for abnormal P wave morphology
    – Presence of regular and narrow QRS complexes
    – Distinguish from other arrhythmias

In some cases, atrial tachycardia may exhibit a characteristic pattern on the ECG known as “flutter waves” or “sawtooth waves.” These flutter waves often occur in rapid succession and are seen between the QRS complexes. This pattern is particularly evident in atrial tachycardia originating from the atria near the pulmonary veins, a condition known as focal atrial tachycardia.

yellow monitor

Differentiating Atrial Tachycardia From Other Arrhythmias

Atrial tachycardia is a type of arrhythmia that affects the heart’s electrical system. It is important to be able to differentiate atrial tachycardia from other arrhythmias in order to provide appropriate treatment and management. Here are some key ways to distinguish atrial tachycardia from other types of heart rhythm abnormalities:

1. Evaluation of symptoms

Pay close attention to the specific symptoms experienced by the patient. Atrial tachycardia often presents with palpitations, a rapid or irregular heartbeat, shortness of breath, dizziness, and chest discomfort. These symptoms can also be present in other arrhythmias, so further investigation is required.

2. Electrocardiogram (ECG) findings

An ECG is a crucial tool in identifying and differentiating atrial tachycardia. Look for specific ECG characteristics, such as abnormal P-wave morphology and abnormal PR intervals. Atrial tachycardia typically shows a rapid heart rate with narrow QRS complexes.

3. Response to maneuvers

Differentiating atrial tachycardia can also involve conducting maneuvers that can influence heart rate and rhythm. Vagal maneuvers, such as the Valsalva maneuver or carotid sinus massage, are often performed to assess the response of the heart to these actions. Atrial tachycardia may be less likely to be terminated by these maneuvers compared to other types of arrhythmias.

  • Table 1: Characteristics of Atrial Tachycardia and Other Arrhythmias
Type of Arrhythmia Symptoms ECG Findings Response to Maneuvers
Atrial Tachycardia Palpitations, rapid or irregular heartbeat, shortness of breath, dizziness, chest discomfort – Abnormal P-wave morphology- Abnormal PR intervals- Rapid heart rate with narrow QRS complexes May be less likely to be terminated by vagal maneuvers
Other Arrhythmias Varies depending on the specific arrhythmia – Different ECG characteristics for each arrhythmia Response to maneuvers may vary

Identifying Trigger Factors Of Atrial Tachycardia

Atrial tachycardia, a type of heart rhythm disorder, can be triggered by various factors. Identifying these trigger factors is crucial for managing and preventing episodes of atrial tachycardia. By understanding the triggers, individuals with this condition can take appropriate measures to reduce the frequency and severity of their symptoms.

One of the common trigger factors for atrial tachycardia is stress. High levels of stress activate the sympathetic nervous system, leading to an increase in heart rate and the potential onset of tachycardia. It is important for individuals to find ways to manage and reduce stress in their daily lives in order to minimize the risk of triggering episodes.

Another trigger factor for atrial tachycardia is the consumption of stimulants such as caffeine and nicotine. These substances can stimulate the heart and cause an irregular rhythm. Therefore, individuals with atrial tachycardia should limit their intake of drinks containing caffeine, such as coffee and energy drinks, as well as avoid smoking or using tobacco products.

In some cases, certain medications or medical conditions can also act as triggers for atrial tachycardia. Medications like decongestants, certain antidepressants, and thyroid medications can affect the heart’s electrical activity and increase the risk of tachycardia. It is essential for individuals to inform their healthcare providers about their condition and provide a complete list of all medications they are taking to ensure proper management and to identify any potential triggers.

Furthermore, excessive alcohol consumption has been found to be a trigger factor for atrial tachycardia. Alcohol can disrupt the electrical signals in the heart and lead to an irregular heartbeat. It is advisable for individuals with this condition to limit or avoid alcohol intake to reduce the risk of triggering an episode of tachycardia.

Identifying trigger factors of atrial tachycardia is crucial for effective management and prevention of episodes. By understanding the potential triggers, individuals can take appropriate measures such as stress reduction techniques, avoiding stimulants, informing healthcare providers about their condition and medications, and limiting alcohol intake. Personalizing one’s lifestyle and making necessary adjustments can significantly minimize the frequency and severity of atrial tachycardia episodes.

Understanding The Mechanism Of Atrial Tachycardia

Atrial Tachycardia is a cardiac arrhythmia characterized by a rapid heartbeat originating from the atria of the heart. To understand the mechanism of Atrial Tachycardia, it is essential to have basic knowledge about the electrical conduction system of the heart. The heart has its own natural pacemaker called the sinoatrial (SA) node, which generates electrical impulses and coordinates the rhythm of the heart. The electrical impulses travel through the atria, ventricles, and various pathways, ensuring the heart beats in a synchronized manner.

However, in cases of Atrial Tachycardia, abnormal electrical signals disrupt this coordinated rhythm, resulting in a rapid and irregular heartbeat. These abnormal signals can originate from various sites within the atria, such as pulmonary veins, atrial septum, or atrial walls. Instead of being controlled by the SA node, these abnormal electrical impulses take over, causing the atria to contract prematurely and at a faster rate than usual.

The mechanism of Atrial Tachycardia involves reentry circuits, automaticity, or triggered activity. Reentry circuits occur when there is a circular path within the atria, allowing the electrical impulses to continuously circulate and initiate rapid and repetitive beats. Automaticity refers to the ability of certain cells in the atria to spontaneously generate electrical impulses, leading to a rapid heartbeat. Triggered activity occurs when there are abnormal signals that can trigger additional impulses, resulting in irregular heartbeats.

Treatment Options For Atrial Tachycardia

Atrial tachycardia is a condition characterized by a fast heart rate originating from the atria, the upper chambers of the heart. It occurs when abnormal electrical signals disrupt the normal rhythm of the heart. Fortunately, there are several treatment options available to manage atrial tachycardia and alleviate its symptoms. It’s important to note that the selection of treatment depends on factors such as the severity and frequency of episodes, the presence of underlying heart disease, and the individual’s overall health.

1. Medications

Medications are commonly prescribed to control atrial tachycardia and help restore normal heart rhythm. Antiarrhythmic drugs, such as beta-blockers, calcium channel blockers, and digitalis, may be used to slow down the heart rate and prevent recurrent episodes. These medications work by suppressing abnormal electrical signals and regulating the heart’s electrical activity.

2. Cardioversion

In certain cases, cardioversion may be recommended to restore the heart’s normal rhythm. This procedure involves delivering a controlled electric shock to the heart, either externally through paddles placed on the chest or internally through catheters inserted into blood vessels. Cardioversion is usually performed under sedation or anesthesia and aims to reset the heart’s electrical system.

3. Catheter Ablation

Catheter ablation is a minimally invasive procedure that can be used to treat atrial tachycardia. It involves inserting thin, flexible tubes called catheters into the heart through blood vessels. These catheters are used to locate and ablate (destroy) the areas of the heart that are causing the abnormal rhythms. Catheter ablation is effective in eliminating or significantly reducing the frequency of atrial tachycardia episodes.

4. Surgical Interventions

In some cases, surgical interventions may be necessary to manage atrial tachycardia. Procedures such as maze surgery or the Cox-Maze procedure involve creating scar tissue in the heart to block abnormal electrical pathways and restore normal rhythm. Surgical interventions are typically reserved for individuals who have not responded to other treatment options or those who require concurrent heart surgery for separate cardiac conditions.

It is important to consult with a healthcare professional to determine the most appropriate treatment option for atrial tachycardia. The choice of treatment depends on various factors and should be tailored to each individual’s unique circumstances. With proper management, most individuals with atrial tachycardia can effectively control their symptoms and lead a normal, healthy life.

Medications To Control Atrial Tachycardia

Atrial tachycardia is a type of abnormal heart rhythm that originates in the upper chambers of the heart, known as the atria. It is characterized by a rapid heart rate, typically exceeding 100 beats per minute. While lifestyle changes and non-pharmacological approaches may be effective in managing atrial tachycardia, medications are often prescribed to help control this condition.

There are several types of medications that can be used to control atrial tachycardia. One common class of drugs is antiarrhythmics. These medications work by suppressing abnormal electrical activity in the heart, thus helping to regulate the heart rate. Examples of antiarrhythmic drugs used to control atrial tachycardia include beta-blockers, calcium channel blockers, and sodium channel blockers.

In addition to antiarrhythmics, other medications may be prescribed to manage atrial tachycardia. For instance, if the rapid heart rate is caused by an overactive thyroid gland, medications to regulate thyroid function may be used. Blood thinners, such as aspirin or anticoagulants, may also be given to reduce the risk of blood clots forming in the atria due to the irregular heart rhythm.

It is important to note that each individual’s case of atrial tachycardia is unique, and the choice of medication will depend on factors such as the underlying cause of the condition, the severity of symptoms, and the patient’s overall health. Therefore, it is crucial for individuals with atrial tachycardia to work closely with their healthcare provider to find the most suitable medication and dosage.

Medication Class Mechanism of Action
Beta-blockers Antiarrhythmic Block the effects of adrenaline on the heart, slowing the heart rate and reducing cardiac workload
Calcium channel blockers Antiarrhythmic Inhibit the inflow of calcium ions into cardiac cells, reducing the electrical conduction and heart rate
Sodium channel blockers Antiarrhythmic Reduce the flow of sodium ions into cardiac cells, slowing down the electrical signals and stabilizing the heart rate
  • Antiarrhythmics are the most commonly used medications to control atrial tachycardia.
  • Beta-blockers, calcium channel blockers, and sodium channel blockers are examples of antiarrhythmic drugs used for this purpose.
  • In some cases, medications to regulate thyroid function and blood thinners may be prescribed depending on the underlying cause and associated risks.

Non-Pharmacological Approaches For Atrial Tachycardia

Atrial tachycardia is a type of abnormal heart rhythm that occurs in the upper chambers of the heart, known as the atria. While medications are commonly prescribed to manage atrial tachycardia, there are also non-pharmacological approaches that can be effective in reducing symptoms and improving overall heart health. These approaches focus on making certain lifestyle changes and adopting specific techniques to manage atrial tachycardia.

Lifestyle Changes

One of the non-pharmacological approaches to manage atrial tachycardia is to make certain lifestyle changes. This includes quitting smoking, as smoking has been linked to an increased risk of developing heart disease and arrhythmias. Additionally, reducing or eliminating the consumption of alcohol and caffeine can also help in managing atrial tachycardia. Regular exercise is important, but it is recommended to consult with a healthcare professional before starting any exercise program to ensure safety.

Stress Management

Stress is known to trigger or worsen atrial tachycardia episodes. Therefore, incorporating stress management techniques into daily life can be beneficial for individuals with atrial tachycardia. Some effective stress management techniques include practicing relaxation exercises such as deep breathing, meditation, and yoga. Engaging in hobbies or activities that bring joy and relaxation can also help in reducing stress levels.

Weight Management

Obesity and excess weight can put additional strain on the heart, increasing the risk of developing atrial tachycardia. Maintaining a healthy weight through proper diet and regular exercise can play a crucial role in managing atrial tachycardia. A heart-healthy diet, rich in fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and lean proteins, can not only help in weight management but also contribute to overall heart health.

Non-pharmacological approaches for atrial tachycardia can be effective in reducing symptoms and improving heart health. By making certain lifestyle changes, managing stress levels, and maintaining a healthy weight, individuals can take an active role in managing their atrial tachycardia. It is important to note that these non-pharmacological approaches should always be discussed with a healthcare professional to ensure their suitability and effectiveness in each specific case.

Lifestyle Changes To Manage Atrial Tachycardia

Atrial tachycardia is a type of abnormal heart rhythm that originates in the upper chambers of the heart, known as the atria. While medication and medical procedures can help manage this condition, incorporating certain lifestyle changes into your daily routine can also have a positive impact on your overall well-being and reduce the risk of atrial tachycardia episodes.

Exercise Regularly

Engaging in regular physical activity can help maintain a healthy heart and reduce the risk of atrial tachycardia. Moderate-intensity exercises such as walking, swimming, or cycling can be beneficial. However, it’s important to consult with your healthcare provider before starting any new exercise regimen.

Manage Stress Levels

High levels of stress can trigger atrial tachycardia episodes. Explore stress-reduction techniques such as deep breathing exercises, yoga, meditation, or engaging in hobbies that help relax your mind and body. Creating a calm and peaceful environment can significantly reduce the frequency of episodes.

Monitor Caffeine and Alcohol Intake

Certain substances like caffeine and alcohol can act as triggers for atrial tachycardia. It’s advisable to limit the consumption of these substances or avoid them altogether. Pay attention to how your body reacts to different stimulants and make necessary adjustments accordingly.

Maintain a Healthy Diet

A balanced and nutritious diet plays a crucial role in managing atrial tachycardia. Incorporate foods that are rich in vitamins, minerals, and antioxidants. Limit the intake of processed and high-sodium foods as they can worsen heart-related conditions.

Quit Smoking

Smoking is detrimental to heart health and can exacerbate atrial tachycardia episodes. If you are a smoker, consider quitting or seeking professional help to overcome this habit. Your healthcare provider can provide guidance and resources to assist you in the quitting process.

By making these lifestyle changes, you can take an active role in managing your atrial tachycardia and improving your quality of life. However, it’s important to remember that every individual is different, and what works for one person may not work for another. Therefore, it is crucial to work closely with your healthcare provider to determine the best approach to managing your specific condition.

Frequently Asked Questions

Q1: What are the common symptoms of atrial tachycardia?

A1: Common symptoms of atrial tachycardia include palpitations (rapid or irregular heartbeat), shortness of breath, dizziness, chest discomfort, and fainting.

Q2: How is atrial tachycardia diagnosed?

A2: A diagnosis of atrial tachycardia is typically made through a combination of medical history review, physical examination, and diagnostic tests such as electrocardiogram (ECG), Holter monitor, and electrophysiological study.

Q3: How can the heart’s electrical activity be evaluated in atrial tachycardia?

A3: The heart’s electrical activity in atrial tachycardia can be evaluated through an electrocardiogram (ECG), which records the heart’s electrical signals and can identify abnormalities in the heart rhythm.

Q4: How can atrial tachycardia be differentiated from other arrhythmias?

A4: Atrial tachycardia can be differentiated from other arrhythmias by analyzing the specific pattern of electrical signals on an electrocardiogram (ECG) and considering the symptoms experienced by the individual.

Q5: What are the trigger factors of atrial tachycardia?

A5: Trigger factors for atrial tachycardia can vary among individuals but may include stress, anxiety, caffeine, alcohol, certain medications, and underlying medical conditions such as thyroid disorders or heart disease.

Q6: What is the mechanism of atrial tachycardia?

A6: Atrial tachycardia occurs when abnormal electrical signals originate in the atrial tissues, causing a rapid and irregular heartbeat. These abnormal signals may be due to structural abnormalities in the heart or abnormal electrical pathways.

Q7: What are the treatment options for atrial tachycardia?

A7: Treatment options for atrial tachycardia may include medication to control heart rate and rhythm, catheter-based procedures to ablate or destroy the abnormal tissue causing the arrhythmia, and in some cases, surgical intervention.

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